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Is Memory Foam Toxic? Unveiling the Facts

By: Christina Davies
Updated on: April 05, 2024

In today’s world, the pursuit of a good night’s sleep has become more crucial. A comfortable mattress is often at the heart of this pursuit, and memory foam mattresses have gained immense popularity. But amidst their comfort and support, a question looms – is memory foam toxic? This article will delve into the truth behind memory foam and address the common myths surrounding its potential toxicity. By understanding the facts, you can decide whether the first memory foam mattress is safe for you.

What is Memory Foam?

Memory foam, also called viscoelastic foam, is a special type that molds and adapts to the shape of things when you press on it and it gets warm. NASA originally developed it in the 1960s as a material to improve the safety and comfort of airplane seats.

Memory foam is commonly used in mattresses, pillows, and comfy accessories because it provides comfort and support. Its distinctive property is its viscoelastic nature, which means it is both viscous (fluid-like) and elastic (able to return to its original shape). When you lay down on a memory foam mattress or pillow, it shapes itself to your body, giving you customized support and lessening uncomfortable spots. This can help alleviate discomfort and promote a more restful night’s sleep.

The memory foam’s ability to respond to body heat and pressure allows it to conform to your body shape. It slowly returns to its original shape when you get off the mattress or remove the pressure. This property makes memory foam well-suited for products requiring cushioning and support.

The Composition of Memory Foam

To better understand the safety of memory foam, it’s important to examine its composition. While specific ingredients may vary among manufacturers, memory foam typically consists of the following components:

  • Polyols: Polyols are like the Lego pieces from which memory foam is made. They are organic compounds with lots of alcohol groups and can be found in things like food and plastics.
  • Diisocyanates: Diisocyanates are special chemicals that create memory foam when mixed with polyols. Toluene diisocyanate (TDI) and (MDI) methylene diphenyl diisocyanate are the two common types used to make memory foam.
  • Blowing Agents: Blowing agents are substances that facilitate the expansion of foam cells during the manufacturing process. Traditional memory foam production involved chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) as blowing agents, which posed environmental concerns. However, modern memory foam mattresses now utilize eco-friendly and non-toxic blowing agents like water.

By understanding the composition of memory foam, we can dive deeper into the potential toxicity concerns associated with its safety and manufacturing process.

Debunking the Myth: Is Memory Foam Toxic?

There is a common misconception that memory foam mattresses are inherently toxic. While it is true that certain chemicals used in the production of memory foam compresses can be harmful, it is essential to differentiate between the manufacturing process and the final product that reaches your home.

The Manufacturing Process

During the manufacturing process, memory foam involves using chemicals such as diisocyanates. These chemicals can cause respiratory irritation and, in some cases, have been identified as potential carcinogens. However, it is crucial to note that most of these chemicals are released during memory foam manufacturing. By the time the mattress reaches your home, most of the harmful fumes have dissipated.

Furthermore, regulatory bodies such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) have established guidelines to ensure companies provide accurate information regarding their products’ toxicity and environmental impact. Manufacturers must have reliable scientific evidence to support non-toxicity, human health, and environmental friendliness claims.

Potential Toxic Materials

While memory foam mattresses may contain trace amounts of certain chemicals, it is important to understand that the levels are typically minimal and adhere to safety regulations. Here are some harmful chemicals and materials that were once used in memory foam mattresses:

  • Methylbenzene (Toluene): Methylbenzene, commonly known as toluene, is a solvent used during the foam manufacturing process. Inhaling large quantities of toluene can be toxic and cause neurological damage, skin irritation, and respiratory problems.
  • Formaldehyde: Formaldehyde, a preservative and adhesive used in foam manufacturing, can irritate the eyes, nose, and throat. It is also classified as a human carcinogen.
  • Methylene Dianiline: Methylene dianiline is a reactant used in the foam manufacturing process. Direct skin contact with this chemical can irritate and may also be carcinogenic.
  • Methylene Chloride: Methylene chloride, formerly used as a blowing agent and adhesive, is a suspected carcinogen. Significant exposure to this chemical can lead to dizziness and nausea.
  • Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs): CFCs were once used as blowing agents but have been phased out due to their detrimental impact on the ozone layer.

It is important to note that mattress manufacturers have made significant strides in eliminating or reducing the use of these potentially harmful chemicals. Many mattress companies have adopted safer alternatives and incorporated green materials into their memory foam mattresses.

See Also: Are Memory Foam Mattresses Hot?

Certifications and Third-Party Testing

Several third-party organizations have established certifications and testing standards for memory foam mattresses to give consumers peace of mind. These certifications ensure that mattresses meet specific criteria regarding the absence of harmful or toxic substances. Here are a few notable certifications to look for:

  • CertiPUR-US: CertiPUR-US is a certification program that tests mattresses for the presence of harmful chemicals, including formaldehyde, heavy metals, and flame retardants. Mattresses certified by CertiPUR-US meet strict content, emissions, and durability standards.
  • GREENGUARD Gold: GREENGUARD Gold certification focuses on indoor air quality and ensures that products, including mattresses, have low chemical emissions. This certification is particularly relevant for individuals with sensitivities or respiratory conditions.
  • OEKO-TEX Standard 100: OEKO-TEX Standard 100 certification verifies that a mattress has been tested for harmful substances in all components, including memory foam. The certification ensures that the mattress meets strict standards for human ecology and poses no risk to health.

By opting for a memory foam mattress with these certifications, you can have confidence in the safety and quality of the product.

Flame Retardants and Mattresses

Flame retardants are an essential component of most memory foam mattresses used, as they help prevent the spread of fire. However, some flame retardants used in the past have raised concerns due to potential health risks. It is important to understand the types of flame retardants used in memory foam mattresses and their implications:

  • Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs): PBDEs were commonly used as flame retardants. However, they have been associated with reduced fertility, hormonal changes, and even neurodevelopmental disorders in children. PBDEs have been phased out of use in memory foam mattresses since 2004.
  • Boric Acid: Boric acid is a flame retardant that is considered relatively safe. While it can cause skin and respiratory irritation, it is not classified as a human carcinogen.
  • Melamine Compounds: Melamine compounds, which may contain formaldehyde, have been used as flame retardants. However, insufficient evidence suggests they pose a significant risk of human cancer.

To minimize exposure to potentially harmful flame retardants, consider choosing a mattress with a non-toxic fire barrier. Natural materials such as wool, Kevlar, or silica-treated rayon can be effective and safer alternatives.

Off-Gassing: A Temporary Concern

One commonly observed phenomenon with memory foam mattresses is off-gassing. Off-gassing means when certain chemicals in a product give off a strong smell in the air. While the smell can be unpleasant, it is important to note that off-gassing is typically a temporary concern.

Memory foam mattresses, particularly those made with eco-friendly materials and low VOC content, tend to have minimal off-gassing. It is advisable to unpack your new mattress first in a well-ventilated area and allow it to air out for a few hours or days before use to mitigate any potential odor.

Considering Individual Sensitivities and Preferences

While memory foam mattresses are generally safe for most individuals, it is important to consider personal sensitivities and preferences. Some individuals with allergies, asthma, or other respiratory conditions may find that memory foam exacerbates their symptoms. Additionally, parents should exercise caution when choosing memory foam mattresses for infants and young children, as they require firmer surfaces to reduce the risk of suffocation.

Natural latex mattresses provide a breathable and durable option for those seeking alternatives to memory foam. Natural latex is made from rubber tree sap and offers great pressure relief and support, similar to memory foam. Hybrid mattresses that combine an innerspring core with natural comfort layers of wool, organic cotton batting, or feathers are also available.


Are memory foam mattresses safe for children?

Yes, memory foam mattresses are generally safe for children. However, ensure the product is certified to minimize potential risks.

Can memory foam cause allergies?

While rare, some individuals may be sensitive to memory foam. Allergies shown in memory foam can occur due to dust mites or the off-gassing process.

How do I reduce memory foam odor?

To minimize the initial odor, air your memory foam product in a well-ventilated space for a few days.

Is memory foam eco-friendly?

Not all memory foam is eco-friendly, not all harmful chemicals, but you can find options that use sustainable materials and production processes.

Can memory foam cause overheating?

Memory foam can retain heat, leading to a feeling of warmth. Look for products with cooling technologies to counteract this.

Are there alternatives to memory foam?

Yes, there are alternatives like latex foam and innerspring mattresses, each with unique characteristics.


In conclusion, the question, “Is Memory Foam Toxic?” has a reassuring answer for the majority of consumers. When sourced from reputable manufacturers and certified as safe, memory foam mattresses offer comfort without compromising health. Opt for CertiPUR-US® certified products for added peace of mind, and consider eco-friendly options to minimize your environmental impact. When making your choice, it’s essential to consider personal sensitivities and preferences. Now, armed with this knowledge, you can confidently enjoy the benefits of memory foam for a restful night’s sleep.


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